太仓| 伊宁市| 岳阳县| 揭东| 昔阳| 武胜| 获嘉| 阿坝| 沙河| 大丰| 金山| 双柏| 阿图什| 乌苏| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 林甸| 杜集| 交城| 红星| 太仆寺旗| 措勤| 大姚| 安乡| 霍邱| 镇安| 林口| 台北市| 扶沟| 桃源| 贵溪| 正定| 德清| 新蔡| 株洲市| 徽县| 吉安县| 深圳| 甘孜| 精河| 博湖| 嘉峪关| 峡江| 壤塘| 吴中| 灵山| 西乡| 林口| 永胜| 阳原| 南溪| 灵宝| 肃南| 嘉义县| 邕宁| 巴里坤| 融安| 祥云| 巫山| 乳源| 平房| 塔城| 舞钢| 沿河| 图木舒克| 武隆| 启东| 襄城| 泸溪| 东阳| 唐县| 和平| 利津| 启东| 庄浪| 竹山| 鹤庆| 牟平| 富县| 钓鱼岛| 郎溪| 蕉岭| 贵池| 巴里坤| 冕宁| 文昌| 台南县| 新丰| 上高| 郏县| 安顺| 启东| 茶陵| 沈阳| 呼兰| 襄汾| 合江| 乌拉特中旗| 遂昌| 郧县| 佛坪| 乌当| 株洲市| 宽甸| 隆昌| 龙南| 南沙岛| 上甘岭| 顺义| 项城| 牙克石| 滁州| 兴海| 鄯善| 昆山| 册亨| 顺德| 独山子| 波密| 隆德| 治多| 会同| 乌审旗| 梁平| 南乐| 唐海| 渝北| 夷陵| 岱岳| 江城| 泸西| 南京| 茂港| 遂川| 衢州| 麻江| 雷州| 垫江| 松滋| 集美| 安县| 五莲| 科尔沁左翼后旗| 龙岗| 兴和| 河津| 清水河| 大新| 临江| 施秉| 祥云| 都昌| 广饶| 高平| 行唐| 共和| 含山| 镇巴| 叶县| 芜湖县| 乾县| 荔波| 故城| 天祝| 荆州| 株洲县| 北票| 君山| 大荔| 洛扎| 延安| 八一镇| 沁水| 五寨| 巴东| 古浪| 金平| 贵州| 江西| 剑川| 衡水| 茌平| 志丹| 清河门| 上杭| 高要| 邕宁| 三水| 繁昌| 同安| 公主岭| 北碚| 南澳| 政和| 林甸| 双牌| 巴马| 广昌| 精河| 绍兴市| 子长| 华县| 康平| 克什克腾旗| 永胜| 仪征| 台南市| 铁岭市| 云霄| 三明| 郏县| 苍山| 苏尼特右旗| 塔城| 徽县| 万安| 高州| 南安| 营口| 蓟县| 齐河| 施甸| 团风| 武宁| 图们| 银川| 竹山| 郧西| 张家川| 长垣| 定陶| 宾阳| 托克托| 曲麻莱| 陕县| 肥乡| 永平| 宁南| 周至| 龙里| 蔚县| 加格达奇| 兴义| 德兴| 林芝县| 武昌| 新宾| 颍上| 大通| 崂山| 西华| 台南县| 西峡| 新田| 成县| 微山| 保靖| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 独山子| 潞西| 合作| 金昌| 顺平| 定襄|

工信部成功举办“信息高速公路助力脱贫奔小康”论坛

2019-07-21 23:37 来源:慧聪网

  工信部成功举办“信息高速公路助力脱贫奔小康”论坛

  AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)AbirdrestsonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)TwobirdsrestonthestemofalotusflowerintheHuangshanscenicareainAnhuiprovinceonJune10,,astemperaturescontinuetorise.(Photo/Asianewsphoto)sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TherequirementoftheroyalsletBeijingembroideryblossomintheMingandQingdynasties(1368-1911)sinceitwasbornintheTangDynasty(618-907).Anditgotanothername,royalembroidery,inancientChina,Beijingembroiderywasfollowedbymanycommonworkshops,becomingoneofthe"EightWondersofYanjing",sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TherequirementoftheroyalsletBeijingembroideryblossomintheMingandQingdynasties(1368-1911)sinceitwasbornintheTangDynasty(618-907).Anditgotanothername,royalembroidery,inancientChina,Beijingembroiderywasfollowedbymanycommonworkshops,becomingoneofthe"EightWondersofYanjing",sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Comparedtoothertraditionalembroideries,suchastheworksfromSuzhouandHunan,Beijingembroideryisknownforitsrichhuedcolors,,,thecraftswerelistedasanationalintangibleculturalheritage,,sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Thefounder,YuDan,broughtherworks,aseriesoffineclothesdazzlingwithBeijingembroiderytoashowatthePrinceKung,fromtoddlerstoyoungwomentoagedcouples,sdailylifeinformsofmoderndesign,sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)Thedesigneraddedlighthuesintheseries,includingpaleblueandlightpink,tomaketheclothesmoresuitablefordailywear."Basedonthetraditionalcrafts,wealsocreatesomenewpatterns,,lilyflowerwasnotincluded,butnowweuseitonmanyofourclothes,",sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)"Theseclientsdontthinktheyhaveenoughconfidencetowearsuchclotheswithpowerfulanimalpattern,",YuestabsMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)sMansioninBeijing,June8,"SplendidChina:ChinaIntangibleCulturalHeritageFashionShow",oneactivityofthe2018CulturalandNaturalHeritageDay.(Photo/ChinaDaily)

(CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.FormerprofessionalfootballstarDavidBeckhamplayscuju,knownastheoriginofmodernfootball,attheBengbuAncientBuildingsExpoParkaheadofthe2018G-EXPOGlobalTopSummitinBengbuCity,EastChina’sAnhuiProvince,June6,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhongXin)FormerprofessionalfootballstarDavidBeckhamplayscuju,knownastheoriginofmodernfootball,attheBengbuAncientBuildingsExpoParkaheadofthe2018G-EXPOGlobalTopSummitinBengbuCity,EastChina’sAnhuiProvince,June6,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/ZhongXin)

  Eightetiquettevolunteersposeforaphotoatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng),2008showsJiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifangasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao;LowerphototakenonJune5,2018showsthecoupleasvolunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,inQingdao,eastChina,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Photo/Xinhua)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guideatouristinWendengRoadinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,giveouthandbooksatMingxialuCommunityinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(R)andhiswifeLianShifang,volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,gatheratMingxialuCommunityfortraininginQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)JiangShifa(3rdR)andhiswifeLianShifang(2ndR),volunteersfortheShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)QingdaoSummit,guidepassengersatabusstopinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,74yearsoldandhiswife,72yearsold,ittenyearsaftertheyservedasvolunteersfortheBeijing2008OlympicGamesSailingeventinQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)EtiquetteteacherLuMin(1stR)instructsvolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Eightetiquettevolunteersforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)SummitpracticeinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June5,,000volunteershavebeenmobilizedtoofferservicesforthesummit,fromassistingwithguestsarrivalanddeparture,translation,andmediarequests,totheoperationofcityfunctionssuchastransportation,telecommunication,andbanks.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Ajournalistasksforinformationatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]LiGuangda,avolunteeratthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummit,saidhehasreceivedmanythumbs-upfromforeignreportersforhisprofessionalandfriendlyassistancesincehebeganservingattheinformationdeskofthesummitsmediacenter."It,,"saidt,000studentvolunteersrecruitedfrom10universitiesinthecoastalcity,,another18,000volunte,theyarenicknamed"littleseasplashes".Theyhavebeenmobilizedtooffervariousservicesforthesummit,suchasassistancetoguestswitharrivalanddeparture,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]Li,anundergraduatemajoringinEnglish,,000studentsappliedtobecomevolunteersforthesummit,accordingtothemeetingsorganizingcommittee."Theenthusiasmfromstudentsisbeyondourexpectations,"saidSunJian,whoworksforthecommitteesworkinggroupofvolunteers."Wevechosentheoneswithbetterexpertisethatisparticularlyhelpfulforthesummit,suchasstudentsmajoringinforeignlanguagesandcomputers."Eachvolunteerhasreceivedabout40hoursoftrainingbeforethesummit,hesaid."Besideslessonsonetiquette,weveinvitedexpertsfromtheMinistryofForeignAffairstogivethevolunteerslecturesonhowtheSCOworksandthetraditionsofthecountriesparticipatinginthesummit."LihasbeenaboutQingdao,becausetheyaretheonesthereportersgotofirstiftheyhavequestions,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]"Itsanhonortobepartofsuchanimportantevent,"headded."WejustwanttoleavetheguestsandreporterswithagoodimpressionofQingdaoandtheChinesepeople."Moreimportant,Ialsofindjoyinmeetingpeoplefromdifferentcountries,whichhasbroadenedmyviews,",ateacherfromOceanUniversityofChinaandavolunteerorganizer,saiditsnotaneasyjobtomaintainagoodpostureandgreetpeoplewithasmilealldaylong,aswellasofferusefulandprofessionalassistance."Thestudentstoldmethattheyenjoytheworkbecausetheygenuinelywanttoofferthebestservice,"shesaid."Improudofthem."

  ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)ChenZhe,aresearcherwiththeNanjingInstituteofGeologyandPaleontologyattheChineseAcademyofSciences,showstheearliestknownfootprintsleftbyananimalonearth,whichdatebackatleast541millionyears,inNanjing,JiangsuProvince,June7,StatesfoundthetracksintheThreeGorgesareaandpublishedtheirreportintheUSjournalScienceAdvances.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/YangBo)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)GiantpandasplayfootballatWolongShenshupingBaseofChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandasinNgawaTibetanandQiangAutonomousPrefecture,SouthwestChina’,allbornin2017,willpa,ChinasgiantpandacamTVchannel,accordingtothecenter.(Photo/VCG)

(CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.

  PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)Asthe2018FIFAWorldCupapproaches,letsseehowgiantpandasinSWChinasSichuanarepreparingforthebigevent!PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)PandasshowofftheirsoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)ApandashowsoffitssoccerskillsattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPandainSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonJune10aheadoftheFIFAWorldCup.(Photo/CourtesyoftheChinaConservationandResearchCenterforGiantPanda)

  AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/LiXueren)AlightsandfireworksshowtakesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)Alightsandfireworksshowwiththethemeof"AWarmWelcometoFriendsfromAfar"takesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/XieHuanchi)Alightsandfireworksshowwiththethemeof"AWarmWelcometoFriendsfromAfar"takesplaceinQingdao,thehostcityofthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summit,ineastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/XieHuanchi)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)ContestantsperformintheChinaBodybuildingChampionshipsinTianjin,June7,,thechampions(Photo:ChinaNewsService/TongYu)

  TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)TheaerialphotoseriesofthecountrysideinSWChinasChongqingLiangpingdistrictwinsthefirstprizeatthe2018NationalYangtzeRiverPhotoCompetitionheldbytheOfficeoftheCentralCyberspaceAffairsCommission,theMinistryofEcologyandEnvironmentand1,,395participantsfromallwalksoflifeandtheirworksreflectedthenaturalbeautyandpeopleslifealongtheriver.(Photo/ChinaDaily)

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  CompetitorChristopheRiffaudshearsasheeponJune9,2018duringthe24hourssheepshearingcontestinCoulonges,,500sheepareshornbytwoteamsofthreeshearerswithanaverageofonesheepperminute.(Photo/Agencies)AssistantshandlethewoolfromfreshlyshornsheeponJune9,2018duringthe24hourssheepshearingcontestinCoulonges,,500sheepareshornbytwoteamsofthreeshearerswithanaverageofonesheepperminute.(Photo/Agencies)AssistantshandlethewoolfromfreshlyshornsheeponJune9,2018duringthe24hourssheepshearingcontestinCoulonges,,500sheepareshornbytwoteamsofthreeshearerswithanaverageofonesheepperminute.(Photo/Agencies)CompetitorGillesGranchershearsasheeponJune9,2018duringthe24hourssheepshearingcontestinCoulonges,,500sheepareshornbytwoteamsofthreeshearerswithanaverageofonesheepperminute.(Photo/Agencies)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)AerialphototakenonJune1,2018showstheQingdaoJiaozhouBayBridgeinQingdao,eastChinauangdaodistrict.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)

  

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融合商法精神的民法典才能引领时代
2019-07-21 作者: 王轶 关淑芳 来源: 经济参考报

  ●此次民法典编纂的基础,尤其是《民法总则》起草的基础,首推1986年颁布的《民法通则》。《民法通则》依据的是“商品经济的民法观”理论,是调整商品经济关系的基本法,是一部民商合一的民事基本法。

  ●《民法总则》采取的,正是民商合一的立法体例,其中既有对民事关系和商事关系一体适用的法律规则,也有专门调整商事关系的法律规则。

  ●商人群体自出现以来,就是财产关系领域最为活跃的群体,是财产关系领域时代精神的创造者和引领者,因此民法典编纂应充分重视商事立法和商法学研究的最新进展,并将其反映到民法典的规则设计中。

  新颁布的《民法总则》,不仅确立了民法典的立法目的、调整对象、基本原则和一般规则,而且也决定了民法典的立法体例,并回应了民法典编纂背景下的民法商法关系问题。

  编纂民法典是既有立法和共识的继承完善

  在民法典编纂的背景下讨论民法和商法的关系,关注的核心就是从立法论角度出发,究竟如何确定民法典立法体例的问题。学界就此问题无论观点如何,其结论一定与民法典的规则设计直接相关,这一问题属于典型的民法问题。尽管讨论者常常并不是在完全相同的意义上使用“民商合一”和“民商分立”这两个术语,而且讨论者之间离达成最终的学术共识也还有不短的距离,但迄今为止,鲜见讨论者因为在不同的意义上使用“民商合一”和“民商分立”,或者因为对“民商合一”抑或“民商分立”持不同的见解,就导致对具体的民法规则或者商法规则的设计持不同的价值判断结论。可见,学界有关民法典立法体例的争论,只属于民法问题中立法技术问题的争论。

  立法技术问题关注的是,在民法法典化的过程中,如何在一部法典中妥善容纳诸多价值判断结论及其附属因素。妥当的立法技术,应当是最能够实现立法者所追求的立法目的,同时便于裁判者寻找法律依据,应当遵循“立法美学”,力求简明、便捷,避免法律规则重复、烦琐。必须指出的是,立法技术本身并无真假、对错之分,但却存在优劣之别,唯有结合立法者意欲实现的立法目的以及特定的法律传统,才能做出何种立法技术更具有适应性的判断。具有较高适应性的立法技术即属较优的立法技术。

  在民法典编纂的背景下,从立法论角度出发关注民法与商法的关系,无论是作为学术讨论的对象,还是作为权力决断的对象,都不能忽视有权机关以往在这一问题领域内业已作出的决断。编纂民法典不同于制定民法典,前者是在既有民事立法和法律共识的基础上继往开来,完善发展;后者则可以推陈出新,推倒重来。正如立法机关的领导同志2019-07-21在第十二届全国人大第五次会议上《关于<中华人民共和国民法总则>(草案)的说明》所提及的,“编纂民法典不是制定全新的民事法律,而是对现行的民事法律规范进行科学整理;也不是简单的法律汇编,而是对已经不适应现实情况的规定进行修改完善,对经济社会生活中出现的新情况、新问题作出有针对性的新规定。”历史可以告诉我们未来,传统是我们走不出的背影,因此,在民法典编纂的背景下关注民法和商法之间的关系,梳理既有立法围绕这一问题的既有判断,是一项基础性的工作,也是一项决定性的因素。

  民商合一的立法体例已成为我国民事立法的组成部分

  此次民法典编纂的基础,尤其是《民法总则》起草的基础,首推1986年颁布的《民法通则》。迄今为止,围绕民法典编纂,尤其是《民法总则》起草出现的大大小小争议问题,大多都发端于此。

  《民法通则》是一部民商合一的民事基本法。国务院新闻办2011年10月发表的《中国特色社会主义法律体系》白皮书明确指出:“中国制定了《民法通则》,对民事商事活动应当遵循的基本规则作出规定,明确了民法的调整对象、基本原则以及民事主体、民事行为、民事权利和民事责任制度。”就立法背景而言,这部民事基本法在改革开放初期得以出台,很大程度上得益于以佟柔先生为代表的老一代民法学家提出并予以全面阐述的“商品经济的民法观”的理论的确立。

  “商品经济的民法观”强调,民法是调整商品经济关系的基本法,民法的本质是商品经济的法律条件。民法的骨干是主体、所有权和债三大制度,它们都与商品经济有关。主体是商品交换的主体;所有权是对商品的所有权;债,尤其是合同,是商品交换的法律形式。在这一理论背景下出台的《民法通则》,自然采取民商合一的立法体例。以《民法通则》等现行立法采取的立法体例为基础,国务院新闻办公室2011年10月发表的《中国特色社会主义法律体系》白皮书,总结了此前形成的法律传统,表达了由此推动的法律共识,就有关民法和商法的关系,特别强调“民法是调整平等主体的公民之间、法人之间、公民和法人之间的财产关系和人身关系的法律规范,遵循民事主体地位平等、意思自治、公平、诚实信用等基本原则。商法调整商事主体之间的商事关系,遵循民法的基本原则,同时秉承保障商事交易自由、等价有偿、便捷安全等原则。”不难看出,在中国特色社会主义法律体系中,商法是民法的特别法,民法是商法的一般法,在单行商事立法未作出特别规定的背景下,商事关系的法律调整理应遵循民事一般法确立的规则。

  因此,民商合一的立法体例业已成为我国民事立法的组成部分,成为裁判者民法思考的组成部分,成为我国民法传统的组成部分。对于法律传统的保留与舍弃问题,讨论者应当持守这样的论辩规则:如果没有足够充分且正当的理由要求我们去改变传统,持守传统就是最佳选择。因为从一般意义上讲,传统的通常就是合理的,因为传统意味着互动中的妥协,传统意味着秩序和法治的积累。这一论辩规则包含着一项论证责任的分配规则,即“诉诸既存之实务者,无须证成,只有改变者才需要证成”。

  在奥利斯·阿尔尼奥(Aulis Aarnio)提出的证明责任的程序规则中,第一个规则就是:证明责任归于批评通行状况并企图有所变化的人。这种变化必须被证立。阿尔尼奥认为,理智的社会生活的基础在于连续性。然而,连续性的出发点不是助长保守主义或保持现状的规则,而是关于证明责任的规则。事实上,之前早有先贤表达过类似的看法,亚里士多德曾经论及,“轻易地改变法律,另制新法的作风,实为一种削弱法律根本性质的方法”。

  法律史上还存在着尊重法律传统的极端事例:如居住在意大利半岛边缘多里安的洛克里斯人是希腊人中最早制定成文法典的,任何提议修改法律的人必须于提议之时把绳子套上脖子,一旦他的提议被否决,这绳子就要收紧。雅典的立法程序同样也充满令人生畏的障碍。任何意欲提出新法律的人必须首先提起对新法律将取而代之的旧法律的诉讼,如果他忽略了特定的程序要求或他的提议被认为有违某一基本价值,他就可能因自己的“违宪行为”而有被起诉之虞。

  《民法总则》采取的是民商合一的立法体例

  《民法总则》采取的,正是民商合一的立法体例,其中既有对民事关系和商事关系一体适用的法律规则,也有专门调整商事关系的法律规则。得出这一判断有如下实定法上的具体依据:

  其一,《民法总则》第二条开宗明义,确认“民法调整平等主体的自然人、法人和非法人组织之间的人身关系和财产关系。”这里所谓财产关系,当然包括商事主体之间的商事关系。

  其二,《民法总则》第三至九条所列举的民法基本原则,当然也适用于商事主体之间的商事关系。《民法总则》第十条作为民法法律渊源加以确认的法律,当然包括单行的商事法律;作为补充法律渊源的习惯,当然也包括不违背公序良俗的商事习惯。

  其三,《民法总则》第二章自然人,专设第四节规定个体工商户和农村承包经营户。其中自然人从事工商业经营,经依法登记,为个体工商户。农村集体经济组织的成员,依法取得土地承包经营权,从事家庭承包经营的,为农村承包经营户。无论个体工商户,还是农村承包经营户,都是地地道道的商事主体。

  其四,《民法总则》第三章法人第一节的一般规定,确立的主要是适用于营利法人的法律规则。第二节的营利法人,就是关于商事主体的专门规定。

  其五,《民法总则》第四章的非法人组织,第一百零二条第二款列举的非法人组织就包括个人独资企业、合伙企业等典型的商事主体。

  其六,《民法总则》第五章的民事权利,不仅在第一百一十条第二款列举了法人、非法人组织的名称权、名誉权、荣誉权等商事主体也会享有的人身权,还依次规定了物权、债权、知识产权等商事主体也会享有的财产权。第一百二十五条还明文规定,民事主体依法享有股权和其他投资性权利。第一百二十七条则就蓬勃兴起的数字经济作出回应,明确规定法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。从而明确认可数据和网络虚拟财产是新经济模式的典型财产类型。

  其七,《民法总则》第六章的民事法律行为中,除了第一百五十一条有关显失公平的民事法律行为,一方有权请求人民法院或者仲裁机关予以撤销外,其他规定都可适用于商事关系。

  其八,《民法总则》第七章代理,各条皆可适用于商事关系。

  其九,《民法总则》第八章的民事责任,诸条也均可适用于商事主体。

  其十,《民法总则》第九章的诉讼时效中,除了第一百九十一条,也是基本都可适用于商事关系。

  其十一,《民法总则》第十章期间计算以及第十一章附则,当然一体适用于民事关系和商事关系。

  融合商法精神的民法典才能站在时代前列

  学者的研究表明,民商分立的渊源可以追溯到中世纪晚期,而民商合一的源流则可以追溯到罗马私法。我国改革开放以来的民事立法一贯坚持民商合一的立法体例,形成了民商合一的法律共识,《民法通则》的立法体例就是这一法律共识的体现和回应。

  我们必须认识到,现代社会商人群体与非商人群体之间并不存在着不可逾越的界限。互联网时代,网上开店几成潮流,商自然人大量涌现。据统计,截至2014年6月,我国网民规模已达6.32亿,手机网络用户为5亿,互联网普及率为46.9%。2014年我国的网络购物市场交易规模为6287.6亿元,雄踞全球首位;我国互联网金融规模已近10万亿元,位列全球之冠。自然人上网交易为“商”,下网生活为“民”,或者在网络世界“亦商亦民”,独立的商人阶层在这一领域不复存在,《民法总则》反映的,正是这一时代潮流。

  但就比较法上的经验而言,无论是采取民商分立还是民商合一立法体例的国家和地区,处理民法与商法关系的具体手法多样,因此,对民商分立或民商合一的理解均不能绝对化。由于民法的商事化、商法的民事化,已经使得民商法关系愈加密切。

  就我国民法典编纂的下一步进展而言,首先必须认识到商人群体自出现以来,就是财产关系领域最为活跃的群体,是财产关系领域时代精神的创造者和引领者,因此民法典编纂应充分重视商事立法和商法学研究的最新进展,并将其反映到民法典的规则设计中。没有融合商法精神的民法典,不会是站在时代前列的民法典,也不可能是引领21世纪潮流的民法典。

  其次,必须认识到商法作为民事特别法的特殊之处,即商法调整商事主体之间的商事关系,商法除了遵循民法的基本原则,同时还要秉承保障商事交易自由、等价有偿、便捷安全等原则。因此,民商合一并不是要将所有调整商事关系的规则都纳入民法典,而是将对民商事关系具有一体适用效力的规则写进民法典。这样就可以实现以民法统一调整平等主体之间的人身关系和财产关系,在商事法律没有就相关问题作出特别规定时,相应纠纷仍应适用民法典一般规则的目标。

  再次,必须认识到由于民法典编纂应当采取民商合一的立法体例,我国立法机关已没有必要另行起草一部独立的商法典。即使立法机关未来能够启动商事通则的起草工作,可能仍会有一些纯粹的商事法律制度作为立法技术的剩余,得以进入民法典。

  (作者为中国人民大学法学院教授、中国青年政治学院法学院副教授)

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